Silver State 508 Official Rules and Regulations
Updated on September 2, 2014.
Penalty for violation of these rules is Disqualification, unless Time Penalty (TP) is noted.
Premise: All persons associated with the Silver State 508 are ambassadors of the event and shall conduct themselves in a manner that reflects positively on the race and on AdventureCORPS at all times. The public should be impressed, not annoyed. The race has been held since 1983 and we want it to continue long into the future. Hosting a safe, fair, and legal event every year, without fail, is our best opportunity for perpetuating The 508.
The Silver State 508 uses public roads, requiring the observance of all event rules, traffic laws and the motor vehicle code. This includes, but is not limited to, stopping appropriately for traffic lights, stop signs, and trains across the road, riding as far to the right as is practicable, and the like. Racers disregarding stop signs, traffic lights, and traffic laws have a very damaging effect on the race in general, significantly more than "running" a light during a training ride. These violations are considered cheating, unsportsmanlike, unsafe, and can be the reason for authorities not granting permission for races.
I. General Rules.
A. Administrative Rules.
1. All racers and all crew must sign and turn in the Release of Liability / Agreement to Terms and Conditions prior to the race.
2. Attendance at the Pre-Race Meeting is mandatory. Solo entrants must be represented by the racer and at least one crew. 2X Team entrants must be represented by at least one racer and one crew. 4X Team entrants must be represented by at least two racers and one crew or 3 racers. ALL crew members and ALL racers are strongly encouraged, and generally expected, to attend.
3. The Race Director has the authority, at any time, to overrule any rule or invent a new rule based on extenuating, unforeseen, and/or unusual circumstances and/or to maintain the integrity and fair play necessary for the successful completion, and continuation, of the race. The Race Director has ultimate authority in regards to all rules, their interpretation, and their enforcement. There is no "appeals committee," nor an "appeals process." All entrants in the race, and their support crews, willingly acknowledge this fact, as well as all other race rules, by attending the race in any capacity.
B. Safety and Emergencies.
1. Safety must be the single most important concern of everyone connected with the race. Safety prevails above all other rules and competition. In an emergency condition where human life is in jeopardy, all concern should be directed to the injured. If a rule is violated in an emergency situation, or should there be a delay (e.g., stopping to give CPR to another racer), the Race Director will make necessary allowances.
2. All Emergency Evacuation costs for participants or crews will be borne by that person or their heirs. The race organizers are in no way liable or responsible for emergency evacuation.
3. Since Silver State 508 uses public roads, it is impossible to control traffic or get road closures. Never risk human safety. Racers and crews must "size up" every road situation and decide how best to proceed or not to proceed. Use common sense and think safety first!
4. It is the racer's responsibility to make sure that the crew members are receiving enough sleep necessary for the safe operation of a motor vehicle. If a racer does not have the necessary manpower to safely drive the vehicle, the racer will be detained until the crew can safely support the racer. If a driver has become too sleepy, he or she must relinquish the driving responsibility. If no one is awake enough to drive, the racer must stop until a crew member has obtained adequate sleep. TP or DQ
5. If you see another racer or crew behaving in an unsafe or unsporting manner, please say something to that crew and to a race official.
6. A Race Official may prohibit a racer from continuing for safety reasons, e.g., a racer being too sleepy to ride.
7. All support vehicles must carry a comprehensive First Aid Kit. Additionally, entrants may choose to bring an AED and/or satellite phone. It is highly recommended that each support team include at least one member who has current CPR and First Aid training and certification.
C. Compliance with Laws.
1. It is the responsibility of all drivers and all racers to be familiar with all laws and all laws must be followed by all racers and all crew members at all times. TP or DQ.
2. A FULL, legal stop is always required at all stop signs, at all red traffic lights, and activated railroad crossing signals. To be clear, a “FULL, legal stop” means “the complete cessation of all forward movement.” TP or DQ
3. Railroad Crossings: Racers and crew vehicles must stop and remain stopped at all activated railroad crossing signals until the activated signal terminates. TP or DQ.
4. All racers, crew and staff must display courtesy, good taste, decorum, and sportsmanship at all times. Nudity is specifically not allowed. TP or DQ
II. Racer Conduct.
A. Racing Rules.
1. To be declared an OFFICIAL FINISHER in the race, all entrants must complete the course within the following limits: 48 hours for solo entrants; 47 hours for relay teams.
2. The clock will not stop for any reason.
3. A racer may not receive any type of push-off or propulsion from a person or vehicle. TP
4. All racers may walk or run if they so desire, providing they keep the bicycle with them. TP
1. Drafting and/or riding together are never allowed, except for the first few miles during the neutral zone.
2. The following space between racers must be maintained, except while passing one another: a) when riding with no crew vehicle: 12 meter split (three car lengths) from another cyclist or vehicle; b) when riding with a crew vehicle: 100 meter split (a football field). There must be enough room between racers for rear traffic to comfortably pass one racer and his/her crew vehicle at a time. TP
3. No racer or crew vehicle will attempt to block or impede the progress of another racer or crew vehicle.
C. Routing. Every inch of the prescribed course must be traveled by each racer or relay team. In the event of a routing error, e.g., wrong turn, the racer may be driven back to the exact original spot where he/she left the course and continue riding from that location. There will be no allowance made for lost time or miles ridden in the wrong direction.
D. Banned Substances.
1. IVs (intravenous fluids) are not permitted during the race.
2. As a condition of competing in this event, all racers must be willing to submit to a drug urine test before, during, or after the race.
3. If any USOC-banned substances are detected, the racer will be disqualified from competition and the final standings of the race itself.
4. If a racer has used any banned substances within six months of the race, written notification must be submitted to the race office. This information will remain confidential. Our medical advisors will review the type of substance used and the reasons involved and a written response will be sent to the racer.
III. Bicycle and Equipment Regulations.
1. Bicycles must be propelled solely by human force, and by legs only in the standard division.
2. The Race Director or a Race Official may disallow any unusual bicycle, component, equipment, or apparatus before or during the race. Conventional bicycle components which are aerodynamically or otherwise designed in some unique and unusual manner are subject to approval by the Race Director before the race.
3. Devices attached to the bicycle or racer designed solely to reduce wind resistance or increase speed, e.g., air foils or sails, are prohibited.
4. All bicycles must be equipped with at least one functioning brake system; a fixed gear drivetrain alone is not considered a brake system.
1. Standard: All bicycles, except those described specifically below, shall be entered in what is known as the “Standard” Division.
2. Recumbent: Recumbents and HPVs compete in their own divisions and must enter in one of the following categories:
a. STOCK vehicles may have any number of wheels. Vehicles may not incorporate any form of fairing, or part of fairing. Wheel discs/covers are allowed.
b. SUPERSTOCK vehicles are vehicles with any number of wheels. Wheel discs/covers are allowed. A front or a rear fairing is allowed. The edge of the fairing toward the racer may not penetrate the imaginary plane formed by joining the racer's shoulder centerpoints with hip centerpoints. No part of the fairing may be moved in entering, exiting, starting or stopping.
c. SUPERSTREET vehicles are vehicles with any number of wheels. Wheel discs/covers are allowed. Fairings can be one of two formats: Type 1: Any amount of fairing is allowed, but no part of the fairing may be moved to enter, exit, start, or stop the vehicle. Type 2: Any amount of fairing is allowed, but no more than 40% of the fairing surface may be of a hard material (i.e. composite, metal, or molded plastic), while the remaining 60% of surface area of the fairing must be of flexible, woven material (i.e. nylon, spandex). Parts of the fairing can be moved to facilitate entry and exit, or stop and start of the vehicle. The racer's head must be exposed above the fairing.
d. STREAMLINER vehicles are vehicles with any number of wheels and any amount of fairing allowed. Fairing panels may be moved for entry, exit, starting, or stopping.
e. UNLIMITED - Same rules as STREAMLINER, except vehicles do not need to be capable of self-start/self-stop. Racer must be able to exit the vehicle unaided in case of an emergency.
3. Fixed Gear: Fixed Gear bikes must use the same fixed gearing (ring/cog/wheel) for the entire event. Bike frames shall be steel, traditional double diamond design (forks are unrestricted) and aluminum rims (maximum 25 mm rim depth) with 32 spokes minimum. Aerobar attachments and aero-designed parts are prohibited. Wheel switches are permitted only for wheel failures, and must be essentially identical to the failed wheel. Bike switches are not permitted. Racers may not coast with feet off the pedals. Racers must declare their gear (ring/cog/wheel size) choice at check in, which may not be changed thereafter. Fixed gear division racers may abandon that division and switch to a multispeed bike in the "standard" division, then complete the race on the multispeed bike, provided that they or their crew notifies a race official as soon as possible; they will then be treated as having ridden the entire event on the multispeed bike.
4. Tandem: Tandems are bicycles that seat two racers. Tandems must at all times be ridden by the same two racers, and may never proceed with only one racer. For tandem teams, the same two racers shall remain together in sequence for each respective stage of the course.
5. Classic Bike: The requirements to enter this division - which will be a sub-category of ANY 508 division, whether solo, tandem, or 2x / 4x relay p will be to race on technology from 1983 or older. Specifically, this means: the frame and fork must be lugged steel (but built in ANY year, including brand new); no more than six cogs on the rear wheel; 32 spokes per wheel minimum; friction shifting on the down-tube or bar-ends (must be true friction shifters; not clickables set in friction mode); toe clips and straps; standard drop bars required (no aero bars). Just to be clear, the frame and parts don't have to actually be 30 or more years old: just the technology has to be 1983 or older.
C. Bicycle Lighting. While riding at night (defined as between 6:00 PM and 7:00 AM), each bicycle must be equipped with a properly functioning and legal front and rear lighting system and this system must be ON at all times. (Note: small LED lights are not sufficient and will not be allowed, except when used in addition to more substantial bicycle lights.) The front light (which may be helmet-mounted, rather than bike-mounted) must be constant on, not flashing, and visible from 300 feet, and the rear light, which may be flashing, from 500 feet. Additionally, while riding at night, racers must have significant amounts of reflective material on their bike and/or body, facing in all four directions. At minimum, it is required to have reflective tape around both crank arms, forks, seat stays, and helmet. (First, place electrical tape on any surface from which you may want to remove the highly adhesive reflective tape after the race.) We highly recommend the taillights and reflective gear (and the identity products) offered by www.RoadID.com, as well as the reflective gear and lighting offered by www.ZombierRunner.com. TP
1. ANSI, CPSC, ASTM or Snell approved helmets must be properly worn and fastened by racers at all times when on the bike.
2. For your safety and the safety of other riders and road users, headphones / ear buds / earpieces in or on both ears may not be used at any time while cycling. Listening to music is particularly discouraged. Riders must at all times comply with applicable laws and ride safely given the existing circumstances.
3. No racer or crew member may wear clothing that displays poor taste or which promotes tobacco products.
4. Neither racers nor crew may publicly expose themselves during the process of changing clothes, relieving themselves, or otherwise.
IV. Team Division.
The Silver State 508 Rules and Regulations for solo racers (those above and below) apply to team racers, where appropriate, plus:
A. Relay team members will ride one stage at a time, from time station to time station. Thus, two racer team members will race four stages each and four racer team members will race two stages each.
B. Racers will switch off while stationary in the presence of the time station staff, passing a baton between them before resuming racing. The baton must be purchased or created by the team in advance and shown during Racer Check-In. (Home-made or purchased batons must be at least 12cm long and 1cm thick, in any shape, and must have the team totem permanently marked, etched, engraved, or embossed on the baton surface. For example, a standard size Gumby with the totem marked with a permanent sharpie would be a suitable baton.) The baton must be carried by the racing rider at all times and must be presented at the finish line (dropped batons must be picked up before the racing rider moves forward on the course; lost batons will result in disqualification).
C. Teams must complete the route in a fixed order which will be declared prior to the race: Two racer teams must switch off at each time station, rotating A-B-A-B-A-B-A-B. Four racer teams must rotate A-B-C-D-A-B-C-D, except as noted in the exception explained below. This "rotation sequence exception rule" may not be used for strategic purposes. It may only be used because of unexpected injury, broken down bicycle, or some other significant, unforeseen incident which occurs during the race and which precludes the racer in question from completing his or her assigned stage. Note: “Being tired” or entering the race with a pre-existing injury or other problem are not suitable reasons for utilizing this rotation exception. Proof of the necessity of using this exception must be given and documented.
1. Exception for either two or four racer teams: if a racer is physically unable to complete his or her designated leg, the team must return to the previous time station and restart with the next racer in sequence. Although the withdrawn racer may return to the rotation order later, the team must then remain out of sequence for the remainder of the race in terms of which stages are completed by which racer.
2. Example for a four racer team: racer C is physically unable to complete stage three. His or her team must return to Fallon and restart there with racer D, with no credit given for time lost or miles already completed. Thereafter A will complete stage four, B will complete stage five, C will complete stage six (if capable, otherwise D would complete stage six), etc.
3. Example for two racer team: Racer B is physically unable to complete stage four. His or her team must return to Austin and restart there with racer A, with no credit given for time lost or miles already completed. Racer B may return to the rotation on the next or any subsequent stage, or Racer A may complete the rest of the race route.
D. Each team must enter with two or four racers (or eight if it is in the eight-racer tandem category). If one or more of the team members gets hurt or cannot ride once the race has begun, no substitutions or additions are allowed to their team roster.
E. Only one racer per team may ride at any time except for the last two-tenths of a mile of the race (from Peckham Ln. at Ketzke Ln. to the finish line), at which point all members of a team may get on their bikes and ride into the finish together, provided a crew member or teammate is available to drive the crew vehicle if it is during night hours. However, this is not allowed if the team is intending, or likely, to attempt a sprint finish with another team: sprints must be contested by one racer per team (the racer designated for the final stage).
F. At least one racer, or two in the case of tandems, must finish for the team to be declared finishers. This means that the rest of the racers may drop out.
V. Support Crew Rules.
A. One person shall be assigned the title of crew captain, and will act as the spokesperson for the crew and racer.
B. At least two crew members are required for the duration of the race for the solo and two racer relay divisions. Four racer relay teams are not required to have designated crew members as they can crew for themselves.
C. All crew members must sign and turn in the Release of Liability / Agreement to Terms and Conditions prior to the race. (A support crew member is defined as anyone who actively assists a racer in any manner at any time during the race.)
D. Crew members may never cycle at any time during the race.
E. Each racer is responsible for the actions of that racer’s crew.
F. In the spirit of sportsmanship, any support crew may offer assistance to any racer or crew at any time.
G. Racers who drop out of competition may join another racer's crew, however a Race Official or Race HQ must be notified.
H. Vehicles may not follow racers during daylight (defined as 7:00 AM to 6:00 PM) at any time. Vehicle-to-racer and racer-to-vehicle handoffs - and even verbal communication - during daylight are also prohibited. Additionally, even at night, vehicles may not follow racers, nor conduct vehicle/racer phandoffs or communication, while traveling eastbound on the route (from Reno until the turn-around time station at Eureka.) TP or DQ
I. All racers must always be followed literally, directly, and as closely as safety permits, by the support vehicle at night, but ONLY during the return / westbound leg of the race (after the turn-around time station in Eureka). EXCEPTION: No direct follow is allowed, even at night, from mile 483 to mile 493.3, the ascent of Six Mile Canyon from Dayton to Virginia City and then over the summit of the Geiger Grade. "Night" is defined as the time between 6:00 PM and 7:00 AM. Racers may not ride at night without an appropriate crew vehicle directly behind them during westbound nighttime hours, including the finish portion of the race, except as outlined below. NOTE: If any law enforcement officer disallows direct following vehicles, all entrants must comply with their directives.
J. When following a racer, the crew vehicle shall be positioned as far right as conditions permit, allowing drivers approaching from the rear to see past the crew vehicle.
K. When stopped, the crew vehicle shall be positioned completely off the traveled portion of the roadway, well beyond the white “fog” line, with 4-way flashers on.
L. Crew vehicles shall not be allowed to travel in front of a racer, at or near his or her speed, within 50 meters except briefly - as traffic dictates - when leap-frogging during the day. TP or DQ
M. A crew vehicle may not create any advantages for a racer by means of breaking the force of the wind to the front or side; excessive leap-frogging for the purpose of creating a wind break for a racer is prohibited. TP or DQ
N. Crew vehicles shall not be allowed to travel alongside a racer, except when very briefly passing off food, beverage, or information and only when rules allow, it is safe to do so. and traffic will not be affected. TP or DQ
O. Communication with a racer may be done with the use of a public address system or other loudspeaker. However, in residential neighborhoods and QUIET ZONES designated in the route book, no sound amplification is allowed. TP or DQ
P. Under no circumstances may two or more crew vehicles follow behind a racer. Caravanning, or a procession of two or more crew vehicles behind a racer, is absolutely prohibited. TP or DQ
Q. Crews shall not in any way impede the progress of other crews or any racer. Actions that offer a disadvantage to another racer are prohibited. TP or DQ
R. While following the racer when rules allow, if traffic cannot pass the racer and crew vehicle safely, the crew vehicle and racer must pull over to the right, when possible, and allow traffic to pass. If there is nowhere for the crew vehicle to pull over and the crew vehicle is causing a significant traffic problem, the driver should drive on ahead of the racer and find a spot to pull over to let the traffic pass. Signal the racer of the situation because he/she might want to momentarily pull over also. In all circumstances, the crew vehicle must resume following the cyclist as soon as possible (as soon as the traffic from behind has passed). TP
S. Support crew members may not run or walk along with, next to, in front of, or behind their racers for any reason (except during water bottle hand-offs during the day). TP
T. Crew vehicles may not park or otherwise be on the race course in the vicinity of the cyclists for the first 29.7 miles of the race; thus they must leave the start line prior to the race start and drive directly to the 29.7 mile location, ahead of all racers. Racers should be prepared to make their own repairs during this 29.7 mile segment of the race; however, limited neutral support may be provided by a local bike shop or race staff. Delay of Crew Vehicle and/or TP
U. Following Your Racer. All racers and crew should also study "Hints On Supporting A Cyclist.” Hints during daylight support: (1) Use two way radio communication; (2) Use arm signals between racer and crew; (3) Plan nutritional regime before the race; (4) Drive ahead of racer, pull completely off the road and stop, get out of vehicle and listen for racer’s request. Obtain necessary items in vehicle, drive ahead of racer, pull completely off the road and get out, then pass off the requested supplies.
V. Crews must observe these safety requirements at all times:
· Stay calm and cool, no matter what happens.
· Trade off driving duties as often as possible.
· Always have two wide awake crew members at night.
· Watch for drunk and/or inattentive drivers.
· Obey all traffic laws.
· Watch for traffic approaching from the rear.
· Be extra cautious at all turns and stops.
W. Night Driving.
1. Crew vehicle headlights must be dimmed (not on "brights") when any oncoming traffic approaches within 500 feet, when following within 300 feet of the rear of another vehicle, when another vehicle passes, and within 300 feet of a time station. (We encourage never using the brights except during emergency situations.) This rule will be strictly enforced with a NO WARNINGS/NO TOLERANCE approach to enforcement. TP
2. Additional spotlights may not be mounted higher than the standard built-in headlights of the crew vehicle, except for a pass-off light mounted on the right side of the crew vehicle which is used to temporarily light the road when driving next to a racer during a pass-off of supplies.
3. Hand-held spotlights may not be used while the vehicle is in motion.
4. If the crew is unavailable during night hours, for any reason except as provided herein, the racer may not continue riding and must remain with the crew vehicle.
5. Any support crew member who is outside of a support vehicle at night must be wearing a reflective vest with 360 degree reflectivity.
VI. Crew Vehicles.
A. Vehicles wider than 78" may never be used to follow the racer. (As measured at the widest part of the back of the vehicle, not including protruding bumpers or fenders. Please note that vehicle manufacturer spec's generally DO include bumpers and fenders.) The ideal crew vehicle is a minivan, though small cars and small SUVs will work as well. Due to their height, camper vans, supersize SUV's, supersize pickups with large shells, and the like are very strongly discouraged as crew vehicles, even if they are less than 78" in width. TP or DQ
B. Hummers (any model), Ford Excursions, large “SportsMobiles,” Sprinter Vans, and motorhomes are not allowed for any purpose by anyone involved with the race.
C. Solo racers, solo tandems, and two- or four-person relay teams bring only one crew vehicle for the duration of the race. Eight-person tandem relay teams may have no more than two crew vehicles. Note: Any vehicle associated in any way with any racer(s) is considered a "crew vehicle," thus "unofficial" crew/support vehicles or family/friend cheering squads are not allowed anywhere on the race route except at the start and finish locations.
D. Crew vehicles may not pull a trailer of any kind.
E. All crew vehicles must meet the minimum requirements of property damage and personal injury liability automobile insurance for the state of Nevada.
F. Crew vehicles must be equipped with the following:
1. At least two amber (not red) flashing lights mounted on the far left and right rear of the roof visible only from the rear. The crew vehicle must use the flashing roof lights at all times when following its racer. These flashing lights must be very bright and of very high quality. Do not wait until the last minute to do so. For entrant insights about where to get these, or similar, click here.
2. A sign that reads CAUTION BICYCLE AHEAD. Lettering must be 6 inches high, reflective red on a white background. This type of sign can be ordered through a sign shop or from Banners and Signs Graphx for pick-up at the race. (Use this Pdf form to order. Click here to see a preview of the signs you can order.)
3. Rear reflective equilateral "slow moving vehicle" triangle having a minimum height of 12" with a red or orange reflective border not less than 1.75" in width. The triangle can be purchased at most auto parts or RV rental stores or from Banners and Signs Graphx for pick-up at the race. (Use this Pdf form to order. Click here to see a preview of the signs you can order.) Attach this triangle to the back of the pace vehicle when following behind your racer, but not at other times, such as when leap-frogging the racer. Triangles may also be ordered online via online vendors such as these (with whom we have no affiliation and for whom we offer no endorsement): http://www.sa-so.com/ http://www.emedco.com/
4. Team or racer totem must be visible and easily legible (in words, not only pictures) on all four sides of the crew vehicle. For the rear, the ideal placement may be the left side of the rear bumper. Lettering must be 6 inches high. Do not block windows. Solo signage should not use the word "TEAM." Signage for 2x teams must state “2X” and signage for 4X teams must state “4X.” You may order custom totem signs from Banners and Signs Graphx for pick-up at the race. (Use this Pdf form to order. Click here to see a preview of the signs you can order.)
VII. Staff and Time Stations.
A. Race Officials have been instructed to only reveal racers' positions and arrival times at Time Stations, if known. Racer position information is subject to human error. The race organizers will not be held responsible for the reporting of inaccurate positions and times, regardless of the source.
B. All racers and crews are required to make their presence known at each Time Station, which are located in designated places along the race route, as noted in the Official Race Route. At night hours, neither the racer nor the vehicle has to stop, but the crew should have their windows down and sound systems / radios off in order to receive information from the Time Station as they pass. Relay teams must stop at each Time Station to facilitate racer switches. See relay rules section. TP
C. Racers and crew members are expected to treat race officials with respect, courtesy, and compliance. Disrespectful or undue argument or ignoring directives from Race Officials or law enforcement will not be tolerated. TP or DQ
VIII. Penalties and Cheating.
A. Penalty for violation of these rules is Disqualification, unless Time Penalty (TP) or other penalty is noted. The Race Director has the discretion to modify penalties if multiple violations occur at the same time.
B. Non-DQ rule violations will result in the following time penalties for solo and relay racers, which must be served at TS#7. Note that penalized teams which refuse to serve their penalty time at TS#7, or any participant who refuses to serve a penalty or willfully disobeys the direction from a race official, will be disqualified from the race and barred from entering again in the future.
1. 1st offense: 15 minutes total
2. 2nd offense: 45 minutes total
3. 3rd offense: DISQUALIFIED AND BARRED FROM FUTURE PARTICIPATION (AS A RACER OR CREW MEMBER)
C. Upon observing a racer's violation of a traffic law or race rule, a Race Official will issue a time penalty or a disqualification to the crew, whose responsibility it is to inform the racer. If any member of a team is penalized, the entire team must serve the penalty. An entire team can be penalized or disqualified because of the actions of any one team or crew member. If a racer is disqualified, the racer and crew must immediately to leave the race course in the crew vehicle, with no further interaction between the racer/crew and other participants.
D. Racers or crew members who observe another racer or crew member breaking race rules or traffic laws are encouraged to immediately say something to that racer or crew member, as well as report their observations to the race officials at the earliest possible convenience. Race Officials may, but are not required to, impose penalties based solely upon credible reports of cheating from non-officials.
E. View violations of all the rules as cheating and as you would drafting, holding onto a vehicle, or being driven up the route. Cheating must not and will not be tolerated!
F. Each entrant must bring a one dollar bill (or more) in a sealed envelope, labeled with the totem, to Racer Check-In. It will not be returned (but will be donated to charity).
G. If you have any questions, please contact us. We will assume that the rules are clear and you will be held accountable in accordance with them.
END RULES - HAVE FUN!!!